A sleep disorder where breathing stops for 10 seconds repeatedly throughout the night. Symptoms of sleep apnea include restless sleep, loud snoring (with periods of silence followed by gasps), falling asleep during the day, morning headaches, trouble concentrating, irritability, forgetfulness, mood or behavior changes, anxiety, and depression.
- Obstructive sleep apnea: Sleep apnea that is caused by an obstruction in the upper airway. This is caused by the relaxation of soft tissue in the back of the throat that blocks the passage of air. Kids with Pfeiffer syndrome are more prone to obstructive sleep apnea due to the anatomical structure of the midface and narrowing of the upper airway.
- Central sleep apnea: Sleep apnea that is caused when the brain does not tell the body to breathe.
Sleep study: A test done in a sleep clinic that diagnoses a patient with sleep apnea Titration study: A test done in a sleep clinic that measures the exact amount of pressure needed to keep the airway open.
Titration study: A test done in a sleep clinic that diagnoses a patient with sleep apnea
CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure): This is the least invasive treatment for sleep apnea. A mask is worn on the nose, nose/mouth, or face at night that hooks up to a CPAP machine. The airway is kept open with continuous airway pressure from the machine through the mask.
Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy: Removing the tonsils and adenoids to increase the space in the upper airway as a treatment for sleep apnea.
Tracheotomy: Procedure that creates an opening in the throat, placing a tube in the trachea below the vocal chords. This allows air into the lungs, bypassing the upper airway when there is an obstruction.
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